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Vesmír č. 10
Vesmír č. 10
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2. 10. 2017
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Zapomenutí vetřelci – někdy matoucí, jindy žádoucí

Anthropochorous mammals – sometimes confusing, sometimes beneficial by Jan Robovský and Lenka Kovačiková.

Humans have kept and transported mammals for a variety of reasons for thousands of years (reviewed e.g. by Long 2003, Wilson & Reeder 2005). All transfers have often rapidly changed the original distribution of transferred mammals and in the extreme cases, we do not know the original distribution/habitat of some transferred species (e.g. Rusa timorensis, Elaphurus davidianus, Babyrousa babyrussa). The most introductions were harmful, but some have been beneficial from the conservation point of view, because several introduced mammals became extinct or lost significant portion of their genetic variability in native ranges. Some survival mammals outside of the former ranges (e.g. Macropus parma, Acomys minous, Dama dama on Cyprus, elephant on Borneo as introduced Javan elephant) have therefore a great conservation value. Some „wild“ populations (e.g. from the Mediterranean) are in fact derived from primitive domestic species (Groves 1989). These populations should have a lower conservation status, of course. Autochtonous status was recently supported by morphological or molecular analyses for e.g. Hystrix cristata in peninsular Italy, Oryctolagus cuniculus in France, Papio hamadryas on the Arabian peninsula. Bos sauveli in Cambodia/Vietnam/Laos/Thailand, Procyon pygmaeus and Nasua (narica) nelsoni on Cozumel island; allochtonous status for e.g. Macaca sylvanus in Gibraltar, Oryctolagus cuniculus in Northern Africa; and some species/subspecies remain unresolved: Cervus elaphus barbarus in Northern Africa, Felis (bengalensis) iriomotensis on Iriomote Island, Urocyon littoralis on Channel Islands of California or Potamochoerus larvatus on Madagascar.